Of those evacuated, around 200,000 returned after the war.[1]. Also situated in Bourg-en-Bresse is a branch of the Lyon faculty of education, providing 450 places for future school teachers. Thus, the Moselle department was reborn, but with quite different borders from those before 1871. Thanks to its vast forests (more than a third of the department's surface) the timber industry employed in September 2007 approximately 4,500 workers. Linguistically, Platt can be further subdivided into three varieties, going from east to west: Rhenish Franconian, Moselle Franconian, and Luxembourgish. Each department has a capital city or prefecture department which includes its institutions. Following a treaty concluded in 1559 at Savoy, the territory of Ain was restored to the Duke of Savoy who immediately started fortifying it. ", Zanoun, Louisa. The President of the Departemental Council is Damien Abad (UMP) since the 2015 French departmental elections. Apart from the aforementioned Plastics Valley and numerous smaller business parks which have been founded by local initiatives the large industrial park of the plain of Ain has to be mentioned. In the east the mountain chain of the southern Jura overlooks the plain of Bresse. At the end of 1815 Austria transferred all these territories to Prussia, making for the first time a shared border for those two states. The department is the second level of administrative divisions on the map of France. With a total of 22,973 employees and 9,000 self-employed persons the commercial sector contributes significantly to the overall employment in the department (source: Chamber of Industry and Commerce of Ain, 2006). Inhabitants of the department are known as Mosellans. During the season 2006 2.5 million nights have been passed in the department compared to 2.7 million in 2002 (source: Committee for Tourism in the Department of Ain, 2006). The department is the second level of administrative divisions on the map of France. Three of them are members of the right-wing The Republicans (formerly UMP) the remaining two are members of La République En Marche!.[4]. Its main tributaries are the Suran (50 km) and notably the river Ain (190 km) which is fed itself by 118 small rivers and creeks. 52% of this amount (274 million €) is allotted to animal products (cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, carp, milk) and 44% (240 million €) concern crop (cereals, oil plants, wine, vegetables, flowers). The Ecole Supérieure de Plasturgie provides 140 places for future plastics engineers and utilizes a pluridisciplinary research laboratory which qualifies advanced students, notably PhD students. One major difference with French law is the absence of the formal separation between church and state: several mainstream denominations of the Christian church as well as the Jewish faith[8] benefit from state funding, despite principles applied rigorously in the rest of France. The first big fiefdoms ("seigneuries") emerge between 895 and 900 in Bâgé-le-Châtel, which formed the nucleus of the pays of Bresse, and in Coligny. A significant minority of inhabitants of the department (fewer than 100,000) speak a German dialect known as platt lorrain or Lothringer Platt (see Lorraine Franconian and Linguistic boundary of Moselle). The plastics industry, which is located mainly around the city of Oyonnax, is a highly productive branch of the economy and enjoys an excellent reputation. [1] 302,732 people, around 45% of the department's population, were evacuated to departments in central and western France during September 1939. Over the past twenty years the Conseil départemental de la Moselle has encouraged the development of tourism in the department. In 1272, when Sibylle de Bâgé, sole heir, married Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, they added the Bresse to their domains, and – by the Treaties of Paris in 1355 – the territories of Dauphiné and Gex on the right bank of the Rhône. With the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France in 1919, many in central government assumed that the recovered territories would be subject to French law. The department of Ain also contains two waterways, the rivers Saône and Rhone, on which building materials, such as gravel, are shipped. The number of daily skiing tourists amounted to 238,000 (180,500 for alpine skiing and 57,000 for cross-country skiing). The department of Ain is marked by very dynamic demographics. The regional TER (train and bus) network is important mainly as concerns the connection to Lyon. In Brou, she erected a church and a monastery in late-Gothic style. Ain is composed of four geographically different areas (Bresse, Dombes, Bugey and Pays de Gex) each of which contribute to the diverse and dynamic economic development of the department. In the 19th century, Moselle's economy was characterized by heavy industry, especially steel and iron works. Consulting and IT-services are of growing importance. In the 19th century, Moselle had 17 operational organ factories, although only five exist in the present day. However, it was decided not to recreate the old separate departments of Meurthe and Moselle by reverting to the old department borders of before 1871. The department of Val-de-Marne is located in the region of region of Île-de-France. The department of Seine-Maritime has the number 76 and is divided into 3 districts, 69 townships and 745 municipalities. France is divided into 101 departments. The department of Loire has the number 42 and is divided into 3 districts, 40 townships and 327 municipalities. Moselle was returned to French governance in 1945 with the same frontiers as in 1919. The 349 enterprises which have settled here employ about 11,000 persons, more than a fourth of all employees of the tertiary sector (without public works). In the 11th century the Counts of Savoy and Valromey settled in the region of Belley. More than 4000 km of transport routes serve the department. The biggest cities are Bourg-en-Bresse (40,300 inhabitants), Oyonnax (23,200 inhabitants), Ambérieu-en-Bugey (12,600 inhabitants) and Bellegarde-sur-Valserine (11,400 inhabitants) (estimates INSEE, 2006). In addition to a well-developed transport network of former national roads, which were transferred to the department in 2007, the Department of Ain is crisscrossed by 220 km of highway. In the alphabetical numbering of French departments, Ain is assigned the number "01" as its department number. [citation needed] The late-second century BC Calendar of Coligny, Ain, bears the oldest surviving Gaulish inscription. The current Moselle department, whose limits were set in 1919, had less population, with only 1,023,447 inhabitants. Having lost the area of Briey, it had now gained the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg which before 1871 had formed one-third of the Meurthe department and which had been part of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine since 1871. The department was hit particularly hard during the war: the American bombardments in the spring of 1944 caused widespread collateral damage; 23% of the communes in Moselle were 50% destroyed, and 8% of the communes were than 75% destroyed.[3]. As a result, France ceded the exclave of Tholey (now in Saarland, Germany) as well as a few communes near Sierck-les-Bains (both territories until then part of the Moselle département) to Austria. This capital is often the largest city of the department. The previous average amounted to 465,000 daily tourists per winter. Every day between 300 and 1,000 external employees are working in the power plant. They represent about a quarter of all employees in the services sector. In December 2006 2,9% of the department's employment was related to the tourist sector (source: Committee for Tourism in the Department of Ain, 2006). The Conseil départemental de la Moselle created an "Organ Trail" to display a number of the department's 650 organs, many of which were built in the area and have historic significance. The total farming surface of the department amounts to 268,361 ha, containing 150,917 ha arable farm land and 118,000 plant cultures (range land, viticulture, fruit meadows, tree nurseries). During these years more than 10,000 Mosellans were deported to camps, many to the Sudetenland, for publicly opposing the annexation.[2]. In Dombes, pisciculture assumes greater importance as does wine making in Bugey. Despite its rural image the department of Ain is highly industrialised. The department of Val-de-Marne has the number 94 and is divided into 3 districts, 49 townships and 47 municipalities. For the major European river, see, Current National Assembly Representatives, Union of Protestant Churches of Alsace and Lorraine, Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins, formal separation between church and state, Arrondissements of the Moselle department, Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moselle_(department)&oldid=973731396, Articles to be expanded from December 2008, Geography articles needing translation from French Wikipedia, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Grand Est region articles needing translation from French Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Its importance for the local economy can not be underestimated. The nuclear power plant in the Bugey produces about 4,2% of French electricity, employs more than 1,350 workers and secures moreover numerous employments in the enterprises of the supply chain. If the Moselle department still existed in its limits of between 1815–1871, its population at the 1999 French census would have been 1,089,804 inhabitants. Moselle (French pronunciation: [mɔzɛl] (listen)) is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. Ain now belonged to Burgundy. In addition, France had to cede to Austria the area of Rehlingen (now in Saarland) as well as the strategic fort-town of Saarlouis and the territory around it, all territories and towns which France had controlled since the 17th century, and which formed part of the Moselle department since 1790. During the French Revolution and the First Empire a large number of churches were destroyed, but in 1823 the diocese of Belley was refounded. All these new territories were incorporated into the Moselle department, and so Moselle had now a larger territory than ever since 1790. Abbeys of the order of Saint Benedict were established in the valleys. The value of the departments agricultural production reaches 545 million €. Last but not least, the railway network is of great importance, in particular the TGV-connections Paris-Geneva (with a stop in Bellegarde-sur-Valserine) and Paris-Lyon (passing by the Saône valley). The future development of the building sector benefits from the department's economic and demographic growth. With 700 ha this park will certainly become a centre for heavy industries in the region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. Moselle and Alsace to its east have their own laws in certain fields. In the Oyonnax basin, three of four employments are directly or indirectly depending on the plastics industry. Metz also has a number of concert halls that offer diverse events such as comedy shows and symphony orchestras. Construction of the Barrage de Génissiat started in 1937. The Treaty of Lyon of 17 January 1601 finally ended the conflict. New monasteries were founded in the cities and churches were constructed or reshaped according to the Gothic style of architecture. In spite of the June 22, 1940 armistice, Moselle was again annexed by Germany in July of that year by becoming part of the Gau Westmark. Tholey and the communes around Sierck-les-Bains were still to be ceded as agreed in 1814, but the south of the Sarre department with Saarbrücken was withdrawn from France. In the 12th century the Romanesque architecture prospered. This last corresponds to a master's degree in law and offers a specialization in commercial and trade law. Moselle is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. Questions of environmental degradation were politicized at the end of the 19th century. Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department. After much discussion and uncertainty, Paris accepted in 1924 that pre-existing German law would apply in certain fields, notably hunting, economic life, local government relationships, health insurance, and social rights. Under the Merovingians, the four historic regions of the modern département belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy. The region was long considered a march between Alsace and the north, remaining relatively poor until the 19th century, and was consequently less urbanized and populous than other regions at the time. The following are the most important rivers: The department is geographically organized around the Moselle valley. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), 2009), This page was last edited on 18 August 2020, at 22:20. Counting more than 12,900 employees, the public works sector represents a significant share of the department's economy. In Bresse, the agriculture and agro-industry are dominated by the cultivation of cereals, cattle breeding, milk and cheese production as well as poultry farming. While enterprises with more than 500 employees represent only 27% of all industrial employment, the businesses with less than 100 employees count for 47%. The Senators from the Ain are Sylvie Goy-Chavent (UDI), Rachel Mazuir (PS) and Patrick Chaize (The Republicans). Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. In the south-east the territory of the Dombes has more than a thousand ponds and lakes. (PhD Diss. Local resistance to a total acceptance of French law arose because some of Bismarck's reforms included strong protections for civil and social rights. The department of Ain consists of 4 arrondissements, 23 cantons and 408 communes. Moselle is part of the current region of Grand Est and is surrounded by the French departments of Meurthe-et-Moselle and Bas-Rhin, as well as Germany (states of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate) and Luxembourg in the north. They are divided into 343 districts ("arrondissements"), 4 058 townships ("cantons") and 36 699 towns ("communes"). In northeastern France, the Treaty did not restore the 1792 borders, however, but defined a new frontier to put an end to the convoluted nature of the border, with all its enclaves and exclaves. The "Plastics Valley" comprises 10% of France's plastics industry which constitutes the highest concentration of plastics enterprises in Europe. Within the sector, the production is of particular importance, followed by the construction, the services and the alimentary sector. 15,000 hunters are registered in the departments, 3,000 to 4,000 of whom hunt in the Dombes, one of the best hunting regions for water birds in France. Moselle has numerous chateaux, manors, and fortified manors, dating largely from the 17th and 18th centuries, many of which are partially destroyed. The angling and cycling tourism (27 circuits with altogether more than 1,500 km) attracts numerous visitors each year. In Bellignat is the polytechnic for plastics engineering. This is because the industrial area of Briey and Longwy lost in 1871 is more populated than the rural areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg gained in 1919. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, almost all of the Moselle department, along with Alsace and portions of the Meurthe and Vosges departments, went to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the grounds that most of the population in those areas spoke German dialects. With an unemployment rate of only 5% (compared to 7% in the region Rhône-Alpes and 8% in France), a close-meshed tissue of 11,500 small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and a fast-growing, export-oriented economy, mainly to Germany, Italy and Spain, the department of Ain is … Educational services as well as health and social services are also sought after. Rodemack, one of the most beautiful villages of France, This article is about the French department. Within the sector, services for enterprises represent 32,2% of the employees. After the weakening of these industries at the end of the 20th century, the department has tried to promote new economic activities based on industry and technology, such as the Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant. The diversified agriculture (cattle and poultry breeding, milk and milk products, cereals, vegetables and viticulture) generates products of national and international reputation. Ain disposes finally of several industrial parks. After Margaret's death Francis I of France, a nephew of the Dukes of Savoy, claimed the Duchy for himself and conquered it in 1536. miles). miles), larger than the old Moselle because the areas of Château-Salins and Sarrebourg were far larger than the area of Briey and Longwy. The Royal Monastery of Brou in Bourg-en-Bresse, Medieval farm of Saint-Trivier-de-Courtes, Pérouges, one of the most beautiful villages of France. Ain was subdivided into nine districts, 49 cantons (now 23 cantons) and 501 communes. Bismarck omitted only one-fifth of Moselle (the arrondissement of Briey in the extreme west of the department) from annexation, (Bismarck later regretted his decision when it was discovered that the region of Briey and Longwy had rich iron-ore deposits.) The Moselle department ceased to exist on May 18, 1871, and the eastern four-fifths of Moselle was annexed to Germany merged with the also German-annexed eastern third of the Meurthe Department into the German Department of Lorraine, based in Metz, within the newly established Imperial State of Alsace-Lorraine. In the beginning of the 6th century AD the diocese of Belley (Bellicum) was created as the first bishopric in the region. In the 17th century sculpture, painting and literature prospered. Ain (/æ̃/,[2] French: [ɛ̃] (listen); Francoprovençal: En) is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France. The average population density is 97 inhabitants/km2 (Rhône-Alpes: 136; France: 112). The strongly expanding services sector represents 46,6% of all enterprises and about 55 000 employees (source: Chamber of Industry and Commerce of Ain, 2006). France thus became a net beneficiary of the Treaty of Paris: all the new territories ceded to her being far larger and more strategic than the few territories ceded to Austria. In the year 58 BC, Julius Caesar's military action against the Helvetians, advancing through Gaul on the territory of today's Ain, marked the beginning of the Gallic Wars. While the Saône valley, the Côtière, Bourg-en-Bresse and the Gex region have a high density of population, only 16 inhabitants/km2 live in the mountainous canton Brénod. The hotel and hospitality sector counts about 1,100 establishments (hotels, camping grounds, bed and breakfast (so-called "gîtes"), holiday apartments, guest rooms etc.). On 28 March 1762 the Count of Eu, son of the Duke of Maine, ceded the region of Dombes to Louis XV. In 843 the Treaty of Verdun assigned the territories that comprise the Ain to the kingdom of Lothar I (Lotharingia). The nuclear industry represents another economic factor. In addition to a multitude of SME's, several big enterprises of international reputation are situated in Ain, such as: Roset-Cinna, Grosfillex, Volvo, Carrier, Smoby-Berchet, CIAT, Renault Trucks, Tréfileurope. This increase is primarily due to a positive migration balance testifying the department's attractiveness. Between 1815 and 1871, the department had an area of 5,387 km² (2,080 sq. In the north the plain of Bresse is bordered by the river Saône and rises slightly towards the north-east. Instead, Meurthe-et-Moselle was left untouched, and the annexed part of Lorraine (Bezirk Lothringen) was reconstituted as the new department of Moselle. The river Rhône represents the departments border in the east and the south. The Centre for University Studies, which has been relocated from the University Jean Moulin in Lyon to Bourg-en-Bresse, has 540 students who pursue their studies in 6 different branches. Due to the diversity of the activities of these industries and their dispersion over the whole department, polarisation effects similar to those in the plastics sector have not yet been observed. Commemorating this tragic era are: the monument of the Maquis in Cerdon, the memorial of the children of Izieu and the museum of the resistance and deportation in Nantua. "Language, Regional Identity and the Failure of the Left in the Moselle Département, 1871-1936. During the first French Consulate (1802) the districts were abolished. Department of France in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, Arrondissements, cantons and communes of the department, Conseil départemental (Departemental Council), Representatives in the National Assembly and the Senate, Learn how and when to remove this template message, alphabetical numbering of French departments, "Ain : Jean Deguerry remplace Damien Abad à la présidence du Département", Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France, "Assemblée nationale ~ les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ain&oldid=979079578, States and territories established in 1790, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing cleanup after translation, Wikipedia articles needing cleanup after translation from unknown language, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Arpitan-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Secretary-General, Sub-Prefect of the arrondissement Bourg-en-Bresse, This page was last edited on 18 September 2020, at 17:28. Foundry, metal processing and electrical industry occupy approximately 8,200 employees. The small and medium enterprises contribute most to the industrial development of the department. Since then, one academic has argued that a consensus has been reached in the region regarding pollution, which is seen as the price of continuing the steel industry.[4].